The usefulness of tiles as flooring material consists mainly in their pleasant appearance as it eliminates the possibility of unsightly cracks and facilitate for quick installation. The appearance and the performance of the tiled floor will, however, depend not only on the quality of materials used but also on the care taken in bedding, laying and finishing off the tiles.
The whole process carried out in four steps as
Bedding which consists preparation of Mortar, both cement mortar as well as lime mortar can be used for a preparation of bed for laying of tiles, Cement mortar shall consist of one part of Portland cement and six parts of coarse sand by volume thoroughly mixed manually or by a mechanical mixer. The quantity of water added shall be the minimum necessary to give sufficient plasticity and workability for laying. Before spreading of cement mortar, it
is essential to ensure that the base is well compacted and properly cleaned.
Laying of tiles: Laying of tiles should commence in the next morning by which time the bedding becomes sufficiently hard to offer a rigid cushion for the tile and enables masons to place wooden planks and squat on them. Neat cement slurry shall be spread over the mortar bed, over such an area at a time as would accommodate about 20 tiles. The tiles shall be fixed in this grout one after the other, each tile being gently tapped with a wooden mallet till it is properly bedded and in level with the adjoining tiles. The joints between the tiles shall normally be I.5 mm wide.Tiles which are fixed in the floor adjoining the wall shall go about 10 mm under the plaster, skirting or dado.In odd situations where a full tile cannot be provided, tiles shall be cut to size and then fixed.
The permissible deviation from datum depends on the area involved; for large open areas, a deviation of a tip to 15 mm may be tolerated. Localized deviations of 3 mm in any 3 m may be accepted in a nominally flat floor.
Grouting: The day after the tiles have been laid, the joints shall be filled with cement grout of the same shade as the colour of the matrix of the tile,
Grinding and polishing: If required, Grinding and polishing of the tiles shall be commenced only after the floor as well as the joints have properly set and in no case earlier than14 days of laying.
Tiles Installation Checklist
- Workout the total area and procure at least 7-9% additional tiles considering wastage.
- Tile base concrete surface should be well cleaned, free from dust and other foreign particles
- The slope should be maintained & ensure towards drain points and keep sufficient space below door and flooring to swing it freely.
- Use spirit level & Straightedge to fix the tile and make sure that all tiles are properly leveled.
- Before allowing traffic movement on the floor, at least, give one day to get it cured properly.
- Use rubber or plastic spacer to maintain the tiles evenness and grouping.
- Excess grout in joints should be removed using trowel and grout material on tile surface should be cleaned with a sponge.
- After laying of tiles, tapped with the metal rod if you hear a hollow sound then replace the tile with a new one.
Problem occurs due to improper laying of Tiles
Despite selecting the right type of tiles for your flooring, people often face a number of problems after installation. It is mainly because of improper laying of tiles. Following general problems may occur if laying of vitrified tiles not done properly.
- Improper slope and level will allow water to accumulate on the floor.
- Fixing tile on an uneven surface or tiles not properly laid which result in hollowness in tiles leads to breakage due to movement on the floor.
- Lippage: Variation in the height of adjoining tiles is called lippage. Excessive lippage can be caused by poor workmanship, excessive warpage or thickness variation in the tile, the substrate surface being too irregular, and the grout joints being too narrow.
- It will give a shabby look as well as allow dust to settle down if joints are not sealed firmly.